Critical Period Hypothesis– Period of life when a language can be acquired more easily. As Humans leave this period during their lives (early childhood), some people believe language becomes more difficult to acquire.
Hegemony is a state of asserted dominance. It is a consequence of imperialism, wherein one culture imposes itself upon another/others with the intention of assimilating them into the dominant culture. It seeks also to either annihilate the conquered culture or to neuter it to the point of subordination. While often accompanied by physical violence, violence is not prerequisite; hegemony can be exerted overtly or covertly, or along that spectrum. An example of (arguably) covert hegemony are “hearts and minds” campaigns of subversive propaganda meant to manipulate the sentiments and behaviors of a people. I say “arguably covert” because one’s susceptibility to such propaganda informs how obvious or inobvious it may be. Facilitated ignorance is another hegemonic tool, wherein those in power cultivate an un- or under-educated populace easily inflamed by such propaganda, and highly incapable of discerning the manipulation. Historically, violence often accompanies initial acts of imperialism but, once dominion is established, less overt and more insidious means of cultural annihilation come to bear. Such an example is language education that, no matter its trappings of bilingualism, ultimately accomplishes the loss of an “other’s” L1, replaced by the imperial L1. This occurs because the intention of bilingual instruction in a hegemonic monoculture is to facilitate adoption of the imperial L1 with sufficient proficiency to eliminate “other” L1 instruction.
- Field independent style– refers to your ability to perceive a particular, relevant item or factor in a “field” of distracting items.
- Field dependence– refers to the tendency to be dependent on the total field so that the parts embedded within the field are not easily perceived more clearly as a unified whole.
Second Language Acquisition- SLA can be summed up at the process of an EBL attaining language acquisition in another language besides their mother tongue or L1. SLA addresses the psychological and educational components of language acquisition. To date there are still many different opinions and theories as to how this process occurs as well as what the best practices are for successful learning.